Brain computer interfacing: Applications and challenges

Introduction

Brain computer interface technology is a powerful communication tool between users and Systems it does not required any external devices or muscle intervention to issue commands and complete the interaction. The research community has initially developed brain computer interface with biomedical applications in mind leading to the generation of assistive devices. They have facilitated restoring the movement ability for physical challenged or logged in users and replacing lost motor functionality. The promising future predicted for brain computer interface has encourage research community to study the environment of BCI in the life of non paralyzed human through medical applications. However the scope of research has been further widen to include non medical applications. More recent studies have targeted normal individuals by storing the use of brain computer interface as a novel input device and investigating the generation of hands free applications.The use of brain computer interface for healthy uses has been subject to some doubts as discussed. The problem of pore information transfer rate of brain computer interface and its effect on reducing the commands give has been addressed as one of those issues. It has been claim that this problem restricts brain computer interface utilization for locked in persons as it will not be able to keep up with ordinary communication ways or even existing human computer interfaces.

Advantages

On the other handsome of the brain computer interface advantages for able-bodied users have been enlightened in. Brain computer interface could be helpful especially for safety applications are application where it is instantaneously difficult to move and the response time is crucial. Beside they can also be used to increase accuracy of the hCI systems resulting in brain computer interface can be in various field such as industry, educational advertising entertainment and smart transportation. Despite its expected success brain computer interfacing needs to overcome Technical difficulties as well as challenges post by user acceptance to deal with such newly discovered Technology. Various method for recording brain signals are then explode along with the electrical changes reflected in the recorded brain waves.

Functions of BCI

Applications of brain computer interface base its functionality on either observing the user state or allowing the user deliver his or her ideas. Brain computer interface system record the brain waves and send them to the computer system to complete the intended task. The transmitted ways are there for used to express an idea or control an object.

Communication and control

Brain computer interface system build a communication Bridge between human brain and external world eliminating the need for typical information delivery methods. The many the sending of messages from human brains and decoding their silent thoughts. Thursday can help handicapped people to tell and write down their opinions and ideas via variety of method such as in spelling applications semantic categorization or silent speech communication. Brain computer interface can also facilitated hands free application bringing the ease and comfort human beings through mind controlling of Machines. They only require incorporating brain signals in order to a complete a set of commands and no muscle intervention is needed. Brain computer interface system robots can offer support for disable uses in daily and professional life increasing their cooperation in building their community.

User state monitoring

Early brain computer interface application have target disable user who have mobility or speaking issues. Their aim was to provide an alternative communication channel for those users. But later on BCI enter the word of healthy people as well. It works as a physiological measuring tool that retrieves and uses information about an individual emotional cognitive or affectiveness state. The target of brain signals utilization has been extended beyond controlling some subject or offering a substitution for specific functions in what is called passive brain computer interface. The precise Awareness of current emotional cognitive state can affect the use of the mental task associated with the recorded brain waves. Another beneficial employment of search information need to determined the state itself and use that knowledge for enhancing various brain computer interfaces systems. Brain computer interface user state monitoring function is considered as a helpful hand in human computer interfaces and adapts them according to the estimated user emotional or cognitive state. It participate in a shade control environment and decides the best type of control that might be used in certain situations.

BCI applications

Brain computer interfaces have contributed in various fields of research. They are involved in medical neuromarketing and advertisement educational and regulation games and entertainment and security fields.

Medical Application

Healthcare field as a variety of applications that would take advantage of brain signals in all associated faces including prevention detection diagnosis rehabilitation and restoration.

Prevention

Various consciousness level termination systems along with their brain related studies have been developed. The attentiveness influences of smoking and alcohol on Brain waves has been enlightened. The importance of the study for medical prevention lies in the possible loss of function and decrease of alertness Level resulting from smoking and alcohol drinking. Traffic accidents are considered the main cause for death or some serious injuries. Analyzing their causes for letter prevention has been a concerned for research in various fields. The concentration level for those suffer from Motion sickness especially drivers has been studied. Motion sickness which occurs as a result of sending conflicted century information generated from body in a year and I do the brain is usually happening on moving transportation.

Detection and diagnosis

Mental state monitoring function of brain computer interface systems has also contributed in forecasting and detecting health issues such as abnormal brain structure seizure disorder sleep disorder and brain swelling. Tumor which is generated from uncontrolled self dividing of cells could be discovered using EEG as a cheap secondary alternative for MRI and CT scan bra brain tumors detection system has been the main subject of the researches which has been concerned with identifying breast cancer using EEG signals.

Signal acquisition

Measuring brain generated oscillations is one of the main components in any brain computer interface based system. It reflects the voluntary neural actions generated by users current activity. Various methods for signal appreciation have been studied. It is the brain computer interface application and the category of its intended users that decides the proper signal acquisition method and its measured phenomena. There are two general classes a brain acquisition methods invasive and non invasive methods. In invasive Technology electrodes are neuro surgically implanted either inside the users brain or over the surface of the brain while in non invasive technology is the brain activity is measured using external sensors.

Brain computer interface electric signals

Researches considering electric signals generated from brain activities have revealed two main approaches for studying the signals. The first approach is concerned with exploring the effect of various triggering conditions on them like in evoked potentials while the other aimed to detect the brain oscillatory that is not necessary associated with external stimulation like in event related the desynchronization and synchronization.

Conclusion

Brain signals reflect the handled activities and controlling behavior of the brain or the influence of the received information from other body parts either sensing or internal organs. Brain computer interfacing provides are channeling facility between brain and external equipment. Bci applications are protected the research community. Several studies have been presented in this paper regarding the growing interest in BCI application field such as medical, organizational, transportation, games, entertainment and security fields.

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